Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Antebellum Words of Change

Luke's American Adventures: Antebellum Words of Change

People often say "It is what it is; I can’t change anything.” However, this is untrue. One person can make an extraordinary effort and effect change. Many historical figures that lived during America’s antebellum period impacted American society. Three of these people were poetess Emily Elizabeth Dickinson, author Noah Webster, and abolitionist Sojourner Truth.

Emily Dickinson

Because I could not stop for Death Emily Dickinson
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born on December 10, 1830, in Amherst, Massachusetts to Edward Dickenson and Emily Norcross. Emily and her two siblings, elder brother William Austin (1829–1895) and younger sister Lavinia Norcross (1833–1899), had deep roots in the New England states; two hundred years before, their patrilineal ancestors had landed in America during the Great Puritan Migration. Her paternal grandfather, Samuel Dickinson, was the founder of Amherst Academy (now Amherst College), and Emily’s father served as their treasurer for nearly forty years. Following in the “family business,” on September 7, 1840, Emily and her sister Lavinia started together at Amherst Academy. Emily spent seven years at the Academy, taking classes in English and classical literature, Latin, botany, geology, history, "mental philosophy," and arithmetic. These courses would be inspiration for her poetic themes.

In Emily's teen years, a wave of religious revivals moved through New England. One by one, her friends and family members made a public profession that a belief in Christ that was necessary to become a full member of the church. Although she agonized over her relationship to God, Emily ultimately did not join the Congregationalists -- not out of defiance, but in order to remain true to herself, saying "I feel that the world holds a predominant place in my affections. I do not feel that I could give up all for Christ, were I called to die."(1) By 1868, Emily stopped attending public worship services completely.

Emily began her writing career as a teenager, writing nearly 1800 poems as an adult. She had many influences: Amherst Academy’s principal Leonard Humphrey, family friend Benjamin Franklin Newton, and poet William Wordsworth. Many of her poems had underlying themes of sadness and death, likely due to a combination of agoraphobia, anxiety and depression, and spending much of her adult life as the primary caregiver for her ailing mother. By including these themes in many of her poems, rather than extolling “Godly” virtues, she became part of the Transcendentalist movement, rebelling against the Puritan ideals her family tried to instill in her. Though her writing was prolific, her published repertoire was minimal: only seven of her poems were published before her death from kidney disease on May 15, 1886. After her sister's death, Lavinia discovered the hundreds of her poems in notebooks that Emily had filled over the years. The first volume of these poems was published in 1890, and a full compilation of Emily’s poems, titled The Poems of Emily Dickinson, was finally published in 1955.

Noah Webster

Noah Webster was born on October 16, 1758 in the West Division of Hartford, Connecticut (now West Hartford). Noah grew up in an average colonial family - his father was a farmer and weaver. At the time, usually only wealthy sons were able to attend college, but Noah craved an education so much that his parents sent him to Yale, Connecticut's first college, in 1774. He wanted to continue on and study law, but his parents could not afford to give him more money for school. Noah decided if he could not attend school as a student, he would become a teacher.

Noah Webster !828 American Dictionairy
Webster soon realized the American education system needed to be updated. One-room schools housed students of all ages, but no desks; the few textbooks the schools possessed were from England. Noah believed that Americans should learn from American primers, so in 1783, he wrote one, titled A Grammatical Institute of the English Language. It earned its nickname, the "Blue-Backed Speller", because of its characteristic blue cover. For over 100 years, over 100 million copies of the the Blue-Backed Speller taught children to read, spell and pronounce words. In his dictionary, Webster used new American spellings like "color" instead of the English "colour," and "music" instead of "musick". He also added American words that were not in English dictionaries like "skunk" and "squash." His first edition, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, was published in 1806. This book offered brief definitions of about 37,000 words. It took him 22 more years to finish his American Dictionary of the English Language. When he finished in 1828, at the age of 70, Noah's dictionary defined over 65,000 words, all written by hand with quill and ink. Noah died on May 28, 1843, in New Haven, Connecticut.

Sojourner Truth 

Born Isabella Baumfree in ca.1797, Sojourner Truth was one of ten or twelve children born to James and Elizabeth Baumfree. (Historians cannot verify the exact number.) James Baumfree was an African captured from the Gold Coast in modern-day Ghana. Elizabeth, known as Mau-Mau Bett or Betsy, was the daughter of enslaved Africans from the Coast of Guinea. Both were the property of Colonel Hardenbergh, and they lived at his estate north of New York City. Throughout her life, Isabella was owned by four different masters: Colonel Hardenbergh, his son Charles Hardenbergh, John Neely (who would beat her daily), and John Dumont. She became the “wife” of an older slave named Thomas (by law, it was illegal for slaves to be officially wed), and bore five children: James (date unknown), Diana (1815), Peter (1821), Elizabeth (1825), and Sophia (ca.1826).

Although the process of emancipating New York slaves was not complete until July 4, 1827, New York state began to legislate the abolition of slavery in 1799. Dumont had promised to grant Isabella her freedom a year before the state emancipation, "...if she would do well and be faithful."(2) When it was time to release her, he reneged on the agreement, claiming a hand injury had made her less productive. Furious, Isabella continued working, defiantly spinning 100 pounds of wool to prove his untruth. Late in 1826, she and her infant daughter, Sophia, escaped to freedom. She had to leave her other children behind because they were not legally free; under the emancipation order, they had to serve as bound servants into their twenties. She found her way to the home of Isaac and Maria Van Wagenen, who housed the pair. Isaac offered Dumont $20 to buy Isabella’s services for the remainder of the year (until the state's emancipation took effect). Isabella soon learned that Dumont had illegally sold her five-year-old son Peter to an abusive slavemaster in Alabama. With the help of the Van Wagenens, she became the first black woman to win a court case against a white man.

Sojourner Truth I am glad to see that men are getting their rights, but I want women to get theirs, and while the water is stirring I will step into the pool.

On June 1, 1843, Isabella changed her name to Sojourner Truth and told her friends: "The Spirit calls me, and I must go."(2) She became a Methodist, and made her way traveling and preaching about the abolition of slavery. She traveled about the nation, preaching about the equality of all people, regardless of race, sex, or ethnicity. In 1851, Truth joined George Thompson, an abolitionist and speaker, on a lecture tour through central and western New York State. In May, she attended the Ohio Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio where she delivered her famous extemporaneous speech on women's rights, later known as Ain't I a Woman. She would continue to pursue equality of all people for the rest of her life. Truth died on November 26, 1883, at her home in Battle Creek, Michigan, and more than 3,000 people crowded into the Battle Creek Tabernacle to pay their last respects to this early civil rights’ heroine.

These three prove that one person can make a profound change in the culture of a nation. Emily Dickinson’s poetry changed American literature and ushered in a new era of philosophical thought. Noah Webster reformed American education, allowing American children to learn about their country from American primers and dictionaries. Sojourner Truth convinced millions that everyone - white or black, male or female - was entitled to honest treatment and equal rights. These three Americans made a difference in the world around them. Follow in their footsteps, and change the course of America for the better.

Quote sources:

(1) https://www.emilydickinsonmuseum.org/church
(2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sojourner_Truth

Image Credits:

Emily Dickinson - photograph by William C. North c. 1847 US Public Domain
Noah Webster - Detail of portrait of Noah Webster by James Herring. US Public Domain
Sojourner Truth Olive Gilbert. c. 1828. Boston: Printed for the author, 1850. US Public Domain
Webster’s Dictionary By Noah Webster. US Public Domain

©2012- 2014 Adventures with Jude. All rights reserved. All text, photographs, artwork, and other content may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the written consent of the author. http://adventureswithjude.com

Sunday, August 24, 2014

Make Way For Jude: Visiting Boston Public Garden

Make Way for Ducklings Boston Public Garden

I originally was going to New England to meet with a friend who had a too-large-to-mail gift, but then decided to make a whirlwhind three-day field trip of it.  The kids and I all piled in the car and headed north.  On the first day, we drove to Massachusetts to meet with my friend.  Day Two was a ride up to New Hampshire and Maine (that's another post!), and we decided to spend the third day in Boston, driving home in the evening rather than going directly home.  Of course, we planned to tour several historical sites on the Freedom Trail, but our first destination was the Boston Public Gardens to visit the statues of Mrs. Mallard and her ducklings.

Make Way for Ducklings
Have you ever read Make Way for Ducklings by Robert McCloskey?  It's a delightful children's story about Mr. and Mrs. Mallard raising their young brood of ducklings in Boston.  Before our trip to Boston last week, Jude and I read the book (purchased as a souvenir on a previous trip to Boston) and began working on a lapbook from Homeschool Share.  There are several lapbooks available online (Hands of a Child and Five in a Row have popular ones), but I chose this one because it contains activities about Boston itself, and well...the price was right (it's free!).

Jude really enjoyed the book.  The large pictures combined with short text worked for him -- which is fantastic, because usually he struggles with static pictures not showing "enough" for all that the text is relaying.  Having the text short and easily interpreted with the text kept his interested.  McCloskey once called himself "an artist writing children's books," and it's clear that the text is there to support the visual, not the other way around - a definite plus for Jude! 

When we were done reading, he started working on the lapbook.  We got the first two sections done before our trip (we'll finish the rest this week).  First was a section about Boston history, and second was alphabetizing the ducklings.  With a little effort, Jude was able to isolate the initial sounds and put the ducks in order - Jack, Kack, Lack, Mack, Nack, Ouack, Pack, and Quack.  With a little help isolating the words from the book (a piece of scrap paper with a cut out window), Jude even was able to read the names!

taking the T to Make Way for Ducklings
When we entered Boston, we came from the north (our hotel was in Andover) and parked at North Station (under the TD (Boston) Gardens).  Our route brought us over the Charles River and when I announced we were crossing over it, Jude started looking downstream for the Mallards' island.  Going to the Public Gardens excited him, because it was no longer "someplace mentioned in a book," but a real, live place he could explore himself.  Our route took us first underground on the T (green line from North Station to Park Street Station), then across the Boston Commons and into the Boston Public Garden at Boyle and Charles Streets.   (We could have remained on the T one more stop, to Boyle Street, but opted to get off a stop early so we could also pass by the Frog and Turtle Pond in the Commons.)  The ducklings are only a few feet inside the garden - once you come through the gates, listen for the cacophony of excited children just ahead to your left.

Mrs. Mallard

 "Make Way for Ducklings" statues is as much a Boston attraction as the Old North Church.  Placed there in 1987, these bronze statues are like a magnet for young children.  They come to "pet" the ducks, and to sit and play on and around them.   It's child-sized - Mrs. Mallard is less than three feet tall, and the ducklings only about a foot high - and there are no "Don't Touch Me!" signs.  Having read the book just before we went, Jude remembered all the ducklings' names, and as he walked down the row, patted each on the head and named them.

R-L Jack Kack Lack Mack (and Jude)  Nack

Celia and Damien were excited to play on the ducks as well.

Jude couldn't read the entire plaque over near Pack and Quack, but he did proudly announce the year it was placed: 1987! 

We then walked around the park for a bit on our way to our next stop.  We passed by the duck pond, and saw many ducks and the center island where the Mallards made their home.   While we didn't get close enough to touch the ducks, they are very used to people and allowed us to come within a foot or so of them.  Many of them were still sleeping, oblivious to the noise around them.

Duck Pond Boston Public Garden

 We also saw a Swan Boat go by.  (Nobody was tossing the ducks peanuts, though.)

Swan Boat Boston Public Garden

 Now that we are home, we'll finish the rest of our lap book, as well as explore a bit more about ducks.  You can see some of the ideas we have lined up on my Pinterest board.


Jude was so excited to see Mrs. Mallard and the ducklings, and the Boston Public Garden. It really brought the book to life for him (I think he was disappointed we didn't see any policemen nearby holding up traffic for crossing ducklings).  If you're ever in Boston, make sure to take time to visit the gardens and Robert McCloskey's little ducks.


©2012- 2014 Adventures with Jude. All rights reserved. All text, photographs, artwork, and other content may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the written consent of the author. http://adventureswithjude.com

Friday, August 15, 2014

Playgrounds - A Favorite Field Trip

Playgrounds - A Favorite Field Trip #abcblogging

Up until now, the posts in this series,  Field Tripping through the ABCs, are about planning for field trips, some great places we've gone or planned to go.  Some have been ideas for simple, local day trips (like this one, East of the Delaware River: Day Trips in Southern NJ) or how to plan a less-expensive eating on a major expedition (Hotel Picnic: Eating on Vacation).  This week, I wanted to change things up and look at a not-traditional field trip - the Playground.

We have a play set in our back yard that is well-used.  The little boys will spend the entire afternoon out there sometimes.   Jude recently discovered that his headphones will work if he puts his iPad on the deck or the picnic table.  He's also figured out how to pump his legs to swing and get some serious momentum.  If you can't find him in the house, check the swingset.

I've talked in the past about how much we love visiting playgrounds in the past. They're great for exercise and for therapy purposes.  (Click on the images to read the prior posts.)



While the kids play on our home playground almost daily when the weather allows, something the boys really love is to go to new playgrounds.  Often we bring a picnic lunch, and then just hang out and play, enjoying the novelty of the "different" equipment.

You'd be surprised where you'll find a playground.  In EPCOT during the Flower & Garden Festival, there are several playgrounds set up for the event.  Some are for little kids, some are for bigger ones, but they're all lots of fun.  (I wish they'd keep a few year-round!)

 If there's a playground with a swing like this, I know where Jude will be. He loves the extra sensory input.

Another surprising place -- a shopping center parking lot.  This one is in Delaware near the hospital.  Target AND a playground? Sounds almost perfect!

Playgrounds are also great places to learn motivation.  The child behind Jude said he didn't think Jude could climb up to the middle of the web.  Jude showed him!

I love going back to familiar playgrounds, because it's fun to see how much a kiddo has grown.  It's amazing to see the things that was just too big become almost too easy!

Plus, even the big kids have fun!

We have a whole list of playgrounds we'd like to check out. 


One that is on our agenda for this fall is Smith Playground in Fairmount Park (Philadelphia, PA).  It's 6 acres of fun!

 Sometimes we plan a trip to a playground, and sometimes we just happen across one.  No matter how we find it, playgrounds are one of our favorite field trips!

©2012- 2014 Adventures with Jude. All rights reserved. All text, photographs, artwork, and other content may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the written consent of the author. http://adventureswithjude.com

Saturday, August 9, 2014

Over the Allegehenies to the Ohio Valley - Fort Necessity

Visiting Fort Necessity

Fort Necessity National Battlefield, the site of the first battle of the French & Indian War, is located on US 40 in Framington, PA.  There is an admission charge of $5 for adults 16 and over; children under 15 are free.  The main site consists of a Visitors' Center/Museum, the Great Meadows grounds, and Washington's Tavern, a stagecoach stop on the National Road.  (After the Revolution, Washington returned to the area and purchased land; the Tavern was built in the early 1800s and named for him.)  Satellite sites include Braddock's Grave and Jumonville Glen.  Before you go, check to make sure the sites you wish to visit are open -- while the main Fort is open year round from dawn to dusk (Visitor's Center hours are 9 to 5), the other sites are only accessible seasonally.  Due to the weather (it poured) and other plans (we wanted to visit the Flight 93 National Memorial on our way back to New Jersey), we only visited the more easily accessible Braddock's Grave.

When we first arrived, the Ranger suggested we begin with the 20-minute film.  The first half is dedicated to the history of Fort Necessity, while the latter part is dedicated to the creation of the National Road (US 40).  We opted to leave the Museum until the end of our visit in order to attend a scheduled education program about the life of a soldier stationed at Fort Necessity.

Fort Necessity Education Program

These two young gentlemen led the discussion.  The "soldier" on the left was a recent West Virginia University grad, while the red-uniformed one is a student at Kutztown University.  They are both part of the NPS Jobs for Students programs.  Their role in the part was to explain about the life of a "British regular" who joined with Washington's group. 

First, they discussed the type of man who joined the milita.  In the 1700s, only landed white men could vote.  While the soldier would draw a regular pay (8 pence/day), what they wanted was the severance pay at the end of their year of service:  60 acres of land.  Most of the enlisters were "destitute of house and home," so many often joined for the security of a job and adventure. Daily rations included chipsbread (the precursor to hardtack), salt beef, and half a pint of rum each day.  Because water sources were suspect, the rum rations would be added to water to help make it potable.

Ideally, every man who enlisted would receive a uniform.  In reality, funding was so limited that often the officers wore uniforms and the rest looked the ragtag bunch they were.  Those that received uniforms were issued red woolen jackets and pants, as well as "straight last" shoes.  This uncomfortable footwear was issued for economy's sake - there were no left or right shoes to match.  Wool was the fabric of choice for three reasons.  Even if it was unbearably hot in summer, wool was comfortable for spring and fall and much appreciated in the cold of winters. Secondly, wool was a cheap fiber that didn't burn easily.  If there was one thing England had in massive quantities, it was sheep.    The hallmark crimson dye was another economic concession.  Men in undyed garments were easily lost sight of in the smoke of battle.  Red dye came from the common and easily grown madder plant - again, it was cheap to produce.

Soldiers were issued either a smooth-bore musket or a rifle (usually the more affluent soldiers brought rifles with them) and a wood and leather box that held 18 gun cartridges.  One would expect that the Army would require all soldiers to have functioning limbs, but they also required that enlistees had a full set of teeth.  Shot and powder would be measured and wrapped in paper; teeth were required to rip open the cartridge to load the gun! Soldiers also carried a bayonet - it looked fearsome on a rifle, but in reality saw more use as a shovel or tent peg.   Often soldiers would barter for a tomahawk - a small hatchet - from a Native American tribe.

After teaching about the history of the soldiers, they demonstrated about their muskets.  Each had a smooth flintlock King Musket.  The "Brown Bess" was the most common musket used by all armies during the colonial period.  It had a smooth barrel, which meant it had a lot of power, but not a lot of accuracy.  A little gunpowder was placed in the flint pan, and then the rest and the lead ball was put into the barrel of the musket and rammed into place.  The flint hammer would be cocked, and the trigger pulled.  A spark from the hammer ignited the powder in the pan, which would light the powder in the barrel and expel the ball.  The term "flash in the pan," referring to something that starts strong but doesn't do anything, has its origins from the up to 25% misfire rate of the Brown Bess.  One of the demonstrators joked that the first time the gun actually fired for him during a demo he was shocked it worked!

This lack of accuracy was a key reason why soldiers fought in battle lines -- basically, each side is facing a firing squad.  The ball was 69 mm piece of lead, while the barrel width was 75 mm.  The extra space kept the ball from shooting straight; it bounced it's way down the barrel and continued on whatever trajectory it found last. It had reasonable accuracy at 60-80 yards - but that meant if the bullet from your weapon could hit the soldier you were aiming at, theirs could hit you.   The musket's range was about 200-300 yard, so backing up meant you were a little safer, but a lot less accurate. Combined with a 75% accuracy rating for the gun to actually fire, you needed a lot of people shooting at a broad target to do any damage.  A rifle was more accurate because it had a threaded barrel, creating a "spin" on the ball.  Imagine the difference between a poorly tossed football and a correctly snapped pass with a clear spiral.  That's the difference between a smooth bore and rifled gun. The rifle is more accurate, but it comes with a price, literally.  The cost between weapons determined what was given to infantrymen.

The leaders also asked if anybody knew what happened to gunpowder when it got wet?  Answer: It is ruined.  One of the reasons that Fort Necessity fell was because it was out in the open.  Not only did it leave it vulnerable to attack, but it didn't provide for great storage of gunpowder.  The day of the battle, it was pouring down rain (not unlike the day we visited).  It meant that most of the British gunpowder got wet, while the cover of the trees helped the French powder from the deluge.  They were on the edge of accuracy - only 60 yards from the woodline - but with wet powder and his enemy protected by the woods, Washington realized that he had no choice but to surrender - the first and only surrender of his career.

Since there was a momentary let up in the rain, we then headed out to the fort itself. 

Fort Necessity

When he first arrived at Great Meadow, George Washington wrote that the meadow would be “a charming field for an encounter.”  Taking in the stillness of the open field, we could see what would make a young, still-idealistic surveyor feel this way.  After his first fight at Jumonville Glen, he wrote there was “something charming in sound” of bullets.  After the loss of  Fort Necessity, he never again referred to war as "charming."  He returned to the area a year later;  in July 1755 he was the aide-de-camp to Major General Edward Braddock.  After the loss on the road to Ft. Duquesne and the retreat to the woods around Great Meadow, Washington no longer saw any glory in war: "The shocking Scenes which presented themselves in this Nights March are not to be described. The dead, the dying, the groans, lamentations, and crys ... of the wounded for help were enough to pierce a heart of adamant." 

The original building and fence was torched by the French as part of Washington's surrender at the Battle of Fort Necessity.  The fort was recreated by the National Parks Service in 1932 after extensive archeology.  Earthworks were retrenched and the simple circular fort rebuilt.  There are some guide signs posted, but what we really liked was the cellphone tour!  By calling an automated number and then entering which numbered stop we were at along the way, we were able to learn about the history of the Fort.

The NPS is also working to restore the Great Meadow to its original size.  Deforesting over the years significantly increased the size of the clearing.  Saplings have been planted to help bring the woodline closer to historic accuracy.

The mowed area and plantings show the historic edge of the woods, and just how close the enemy was.

After we walked up the hill to Washington's Tavern (Fort Necessity National Battlefield's visitor's center is also the home of the museum for the National Road Heritage Corridor), we headed back into the museum.  Although the rain had finally stopped (of course!), the playground was too wet to spend much time on.  I loved the reproduction feel of it.

The interactive museum shows all "three" sides of the French and Indian War - British, French, and Native.  The kids loved the symbols placed on placards.  Britain was represented by a Crown, France by the fleur-de-lis, and the Native Americans by a turtle.

One of the things the boys really enjoyed were seeing some of the artifacts. We were all impressed by the detail in the Wampum, and Jude couldn't believe how soft the beaver pelt was.

wampum exhibit Fort Necessity

Even though the original fort was destroyed by fire, excavators found a piece of the original fencing buried underground.

The centerpoint of the exhibit was this statute to honor the fallen soldiers of the Battle, with the interactive history lesson.  What made it incredibly interesting is its placement in a rotunda, with the British perspective on one side, and the French on the other.  One of the themes Luke has been exploring is who is "right" when it comes to war.  This made for a fantastic discussion on how history is subject to which side you are on -- a concept that comes to the forefront again in the American Civil War. 

After the story of the French and Indian War, the museum skips forward to the Early Republic and the history of the National Road -US 40.  Built to connect the territories west of the Ohio Valley with the eastern states, it was the first federally funded road in the United States. Beginning in Cumberland, Maryland, it transverses Pennsylvania, (West) Virginia, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois to reach the Mississippi River at St. Louis.  Over the years, US 40 combined with other highly traveled roads (portions of the frontier byways Zanes Trace and Oregon Trail, and the Victory Highway in the western US), expanded to run from coast to coast, and currently runs from Atlantic City, NJ to Park City, UT. 

The National Road history museum

After we completed our tour, we headed down the National Road to Braddock's Grave.  The cellphone tour continues here as well, giving an overview of the site before you head into from the parking lot to the historical site.  With the parking lot built on a hill, and needing to cross the Braddock Road Trace, it's definitely a site that isn't compatible with region's frequent sleet and snow. 

Braddock Road Trace
Braddock's Road Trace

General Edward Braddock graveBraddock's Original Grave

A year after the Battle of Fort Necessity, George Washington returned to the area as the aide-de-camp to General Edward Braddock.  Their mission was to recapture Fort Duquesne from the French, but the British troops were ambushed and slaughtered just after they crossed the Monongahela River.   They retreated back down to about a mile from Great Meadow, where Braddock died of his wounds.  George Washington led the funeral service.  He had the men bury Braddock in the center of the road, and the militia stomped over it to hide the grave.  (Washington feared Native Americans would ransack the grave and take the corpse as a trophy.)

Braddock's Road was used as a main thoroughfare through the Allegheny Mountains.  In 1804, maintenance workers for the National Road unearthed a body near where Braddock was supposed to have been buried, and his uniform buttons found nearby confirmed the identity.  Braddock's remains were then re-interred atop a nearby hill.

 Braddock's Grave Monument

While most consider the Revolution to have begun with the shots at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, it is here in this small meadow where the fight for American freedom truly began.  The Ohio Valley was where Britain began to assert her authority in the colonies, trying to gain control over the land -- and then piling taxes on the colonists to pay for the forays.  Only about three hours from the National Battlefields of Antietam and Gettysburg (each about 3 hours away), visiting Fort Necessity is well worth the side trip to learn more about two important events that helped make America. 

©2012- 2014 Adventures with Jude. All rights reserved. All text, photographs, artwork, and other content may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the written consent of the author. http://adventureswithjude.com
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